Home

Prevention of bluetongue in sheep

Transmission and replication of bluetongue virus

Bluetongue in Cattle and Sheep - NADI

  1. Bluetongue is a viral disease affecting sheep, cattle, deer, goats and camelids (camels, llamas, alpacas, guanaco and vicuña). Although sheep are most severely affected, cattle are the main mammalian reservoir of the virus and are very important in the epidemiology of the disease
  2. Blue Tongue in Sheep There are many strains of the virus causing blue tongue and immunity against one strain will not necessarily protect the animal against another. Lambs can get passive immunity suckling from an immune ewe. For this reason lambs of vaccinated ewes should not be vaccinated until they are weaned
  3. ants. Under field conditions, the causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is typically transmitted by Culicoides spp. insects (biting midges) following a bite to consume a blood meal from susceptible animals. Mechanical transmission of the virus by other bloodsucking insects is of
  4. , Abdu Mohammed and Kula Jilo School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine

Not all signs of blue tongue appear in a single sheep or even in a single outbreak. Best control methods involve controlling the gnat. Since this insect breeds in the mud along the edges of slow-moving streams or water tank overflow, try to eliminate these breeding sites. Breeding sites also can be sprayed with insecticides First aid for Bluetongue Disease in Sheep and Goats:- Separation of sick animals should be made. Affected animals should be kept away from solar exposure. Adequate rest to the affected animal Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious, viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and including cattle, goats, buffalo, antelope, deer, elk and camels) that is transmitted by insects, particularly biting midges of the Culicoides species. The virus which causes BT is identified as a member of the Reoviridae family The reason for reduced intake of feed and water are attributable to the pain factor associated by the ulceration of the gums and tongue caused by the bluetongue virus. Lectade (G361 Act 36/1947) is an electrolytic powder reconstituted with water used for reversal of dehydration, loss of electrolytes and energy

Blue Tongue in Sheep Fivet Animal Healt

Practical advice for preventing Bluetongue (blue tongue) disease Some simple husbandry changes and practical midge control measures may help break the livestock infection cycle of Bluetongue.. Discussion: Bluetongue, originally known as sore muzzle, is a disease of sheep and goats caused by a filterable virus. In addition to serotype 10 types 11, 13 and 17 have been isolated in sheep in the United States. The disease encompasses a wide range of symptoms, including a high temperature and dullness Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are noncontagious, insect-transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induc

USDA APHIS Bluetongu

  1. ants, particularly sheep. Bluetongue causes many different symptoms in affected anmi asl i,ncluding ulcers s, ores p, ainful hooves, lameness and reproductive problems. Affected animals can hav
  2. Prevention and control. There is no effective treatment for animals with Bluetongue apart from rest, provision of soft food, and good husbandry. Vaccines are available for sheep in countries where Bluetongue is endemic. Currently there is no vaccine available for Bluetongue in Canada. Midge populations can be controlled by
  3. Bluetongue virus will cause abortions, stillbirths and weak lambs. Diagnosis: By the presence of clinical signs similar to those reported in sheep have been documented in goats. Treatment: Minimize animal stress and antibiotic treatment for secondary infections. Prevention: Controlling breeding areas for biting gnats
  4. ant hosts. The genus Culicoides includes a large number of species, however, only a small number are able to transmit BTV.. The distribution of C brevitarsis deter
  5. g systems is not considered possible. The most important way to protect Australia from bluetongue disease is by restricting sheep from regions where the virus and its vectors occur (such as in the Kimberley)
  6. Specifically, MLVs are used in California to protect sheep against infection with BTV serotypes 10, 11, and 17, and a MLV to BTV serotype 10 is licensed for use in sheep throughout the United States. These MLV vaccines may need to continue to be used in the immediate future for protective immunization of sheep and goats against BT

NMSU: Sheep Production & Management - Blue Tongue-Sheep Healt

Bluetongue Virus in Sheep Information for Veterinarians Kaylie M. Shaver WSU College of Veterinary Medicine, Class of 2020 What is Bluetongue Virus? Bluetongue Virus, or BTV, is an Orbivirus. There are 26 known serotypes that infect ruminants including cattle, sheep, goats, wildlife (deer), and new world camelids. It is a non-contagious Sheep with lesions in the mouth and esophagus may vomit and this may lead to aspiration of the ruminal contents, pneumonia and death. Bluetongue can be a severe disease in sheep with mortality varying from 5-80% depending on the virus serotype and on the immune status of the sheep populations

Bluetongue Disease in Sheep and Goats Sheep Far

Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist, University of Maryland Small Ruminant Extension Program (Previously shared on Premier1Supplies Sheep Guide). Hoof care is an important aspect of sheep production and management. Hoof diseases can affect the health and welfare of sheep and have a negative effect on productivity Symptoms: loss of appetite and loss of weight. Treatment: Treatment will be successful when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage, it's tough to cure disease in an advanced stage. Affected sheep should not be kept for breeding. Consult the veterinarian if you observe sudden weight in sheep. Abortion. Abortion in sheep is due to the common infectious cause of Chlamydia (Enzootic abortion. focus on keeping unaffected sheep clean. Be aware that apparently healthy sheep or goats can be carrying the bacteria in a pocket of infection in the foot during dry conditions, and show no clinical signs of infection. A program to eliminate footrot from a herd or flock involves three steps: 1) prevention, 2) eradication, and 3) surveillance

BLUETONGUE Aetiology Epidemiology Diagnosis Prevention and Control References AETIOLOGY Classification of the causative agent Virus family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus with 22 recognised species in the genus. The bluetongue virus (BTV) species contain 27 recognised serotypes and are most closely related to the viruses in the epizooti In sheep can be confused with Bluetongue Prevention - Control - Treatment. Prevention and Control. Report occurrence immediately so as to invoke quarantine after the disease is confirmed by the veterinary authorities. Such quarantines should be lifted only by the authorities, usually 6 weeks after the last recorded case Wool will also become discolored from the keds' excrement. Severe infestations can result in anemia and weight loss, and can keds can transmit certain diseases such as bluetongue. Treatment typically involves shearing, which will remove a large percentage of keds, and a sheep-safe topical treatment BLUETONGUE VACCINE. For use in healthy sheep and goats as an aid in the prevention of Type 10 Bluetongue virus infection. Contains penicillin and streptomycin as preservatives. Incidence of Bluetongue is seasonal, with animals contracting the disease mostly in August and September due to the virus being transmitted by biting insects

Blue Tongue• Bluetongue (BTV) is an insect borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, especially sheep.•. The name refers to the blue discoloration of the tongue and mucous membranes, due to cyanosis, which is sometimes seen in cases of the disease.•. BTV is classified as an OIE list A disease and is therefore notifiable 1. Aust Vet J. 1975 Apr;51(4):209-10. The control of bluetongue in an enzootic situation. Erasmus BJ. On account of the wide host range of bluetongue virus and its biological transmission by insects, control of the disease in an enzootic situation is based primarily on the active immunisation of susceptible animals as well as on the prevention of contact between the insect vectors and the. Bluetongue is generally regarded as an infectious insect-borne disease of sheep and other ruminants, but primarily affects sheep in its typical form. Although the susceptibility of goats and the occurrence of unapparent infections under natural conditions have been described many years ago, few studies have been conducted in these animals

BLUETONGUE VACCINE

Bluetongue: how to spot and report the disease. Bluetongue is a notifiable insect-borne viral disease that affects sheep, cattle, other ruminants such as goats and camelids such as IIasmas. It cannot be spread directly between animals and relies on the midge as a vector for transmission. It does not affected people or food safety, but outbreaks. Bluetongue virus can infect all ruminants (e.g. sheep, cattle, goats and deer) and camelids (e.g. llama and alpaca). Sheep are most severely affected by the disease. Cattle, although infected more frequently than sheep, do not always show signs of the disease. Find out more about the signs of bluetongue on NFUonline her Sheep and Goat Vaccine and Health Management Schedule. Most livestock vaccine and health management protocols revolve around the animal's stage of production. For sheep and goats, it is recommended to vaccinate prior to lambing, weaning, and breeding. The purpose of this publication is to offer a guide in establishing a health management.

Bluetongue - OIE - World Organisation for Animal Healt

Tetanus in sheep and goats: contraction of skeletal muscles. Sheep and goat are more susceptible animals with tetanus disease. The disease is caused by bacteria known as Clostridium tetani which is remain in the intestine of the herbivorous animals as normal habitat. The organism can be grown under strict anaerobic condition Blue tongue (Epizootic hemorrhagic disease) is an arthropod-borne orbivirus (Bluetongue virus - BTV) which only rarely causes neonatal deformities and acute oral disease in cattle worldwide.. A large number of Orbivirus serotypes have been recognised and numerous vectors are responsible for its transmission, primarily biting midges (Culicoides spp).. Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is spread by insect vectors, Culicoides midges, feeding on viraemic animals. All ruminant species are susceptible; however bluetongue is primarily a disease of sheep. Infection in cattle, although of great epidemiological significance, is usually subclinical Bluetongue is an insect-borne, viral disease affecting sheep, cattle, deer, goats and camelids (camels, llamas, alpacas, guanaco and vicuña). Although sheep are most severely affected, cattle are the main mammal reservoir of the virus and are critical in the disease epidemiology

Treatment Of Bluetongue In Sheep - watznuuz

Bluetongue (Midge-borne disease) Bluetongue is transmitted by the Culicoides midge, which breeds in moist, warm conditions, says Dr Leask. We have certain strains in SA and there are other strains in Europe. The strains in SA affect mostly sheep and although other species can get it, it is usually at subclinical levels 1. Introduction. Bluetongue (BT), an infectious, non-contagious and arthropod-borne virus disease of ruminants belonging to the family Reoviridae and the genus Orbivirus (Lefkowitz et al., 2018), culpable for an estimated annual loss of 3 billion US dollars.Clinical signs of BT are variable and usually detected in fine wool breeds of sheep and the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Bluetongue is well known by sheep farmers in the Karoo. The effects of the disease on Angora goats are less well known. Angora goats have been shown to be susceptible to experimental infections with bluetongue virus but apart from a fever reaction showed no clinical signs. Angora goats are susceptible to natural disease but certainly have.

Infection occurs by contact. The virus is highly resistant to desiccation in the environment, having been recovered from dried crusts after 12 yr. In the laboratory, it is also resistant to glycerol and to ether. Contagious ecthyma is found worldwide and is common in young lambs reared artificially and in older lambs during late summer, fall. Cattle, goats and elk, for example, are affected by a very mild, self-limiting infection. Bluetongue can cause serious illness and death in sheep as well as deer and potentially other wildlife. There is no cure and death may occur within seven days. In sheep, the symptoms of bluetongue include: fever. reddening of the lining of the mouth and nose Niki Foster Bluetongue disease is transmitted by biting midges. Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious disease affecting ruminants, particularly sheep.It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides.Bluetongue disease can devastate livestock populations, but there have been no reported cases of human infection According to Vietnam Animal Health Department report on October 27th, 2013, there are three provinces (Thanh Hoa, Ha Tinh and Quang Tri) which has been confirmed of FMD disease in 21-day period. FMD is an acute contagious disease which can quickly spread out to other provinces and result in serious losses for stockpeople. We would like to provide some information of FMD and how to prevent it. bluetongue to be an unlikely differential, as scabs are not a feature of bluetongue. However, practitioners would be well advised to consult with more experienced colleagues and, if there are still doubts, remain on the holding and contact DEFRA. There are very few sheep specialists, so I think the University of Edinburgh must be applauded fo

Blue Tongue in Sheep: A Systemic Revie

Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China. Bluetongue can also cause pregnant sheep to abort; Diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis is based upon clinical signs, virus detection using a sensitive technique called PCR or blood sampling to test for antibodies to the virus. Antibiotic therapy to control secondary bacterial infections and anti-inflammatories can be used to treat the symptoms What is Bluetongue? Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious disease, transmitted mainly by midges of the genus Culicoides, that affecs different species of ruminants.The agent is the Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus from which more than 30 possible serotypes have been described.pes have been described.. BTV affects ruminants, both domestic and wild. Sheep are considered to be the main host, since.

Bluetongue Disease Images - CFSPH

Bluetongue disease - Wikipedi

Bluetongue vaccines for sheep and cattle are now available across Britain, with supplies approved for use in vet practices. There is a high risk of an outbreak of Bluetongue (BTV-8) towards the. Diarrhea may be present in bluetongue in sheep and is accompanied by typical mucosal lesions. In goats, diarrhea is often prominent in enterotoxemia associated withC perfringens type D. This is not a feature of the clinical disease in sheep but may be present in flockmates of affected sheep Background and Objectives: Germany was affected by Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) from 2006 to 2009 and recorded new cases since December 2018. We assessed the economic impact of the epidemic from the first cases in 2006 until 2018. Direct costs include production losses, animal deaths, and veterinary treatment. Indirect costs include surveillance, additional measures for animal export. Hoof care is an important aspect of sheep production and management. Hoof diseases can affect the health and welfare of sheep and have a negative effect on productivity. Hooves should be regularly checked for disease and excess growth. Animals which have excessive hoof growth, recurrent hoof problems and/or fail to respond to treatment should be culled

Bluetongue disease is a noncontagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, yaks, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by Bluetongue virus ( BTV ). The virus is transmitted by the midges Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids Bluetongue is a non-contagious, arthropod-borne viral disease of both domestic and wild ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in some areas with cattle and wild ruminants serving as reservoirs for the virus. Epizootics of Bluetongue virus killing approximately 179,000 sheep within 4 months have threatened the livestock industry in recent.

Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are noncontagious, insect-transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induced disease, whether BT or EHD Africa - Bluetongue - Cattle - Control - Culicoides - Live-attenuated vaccine - Sheep - South Africa - Southern Africa - Vaccination - Vaccine. Bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) is the prototype species of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. The viral genome consists of 10 double-strande bluetongue as compared to sheep (OR = 0.233). Other risk factors had no significant influence (P>0.05) on seropositivity. It was worth enough to conclude that higher seroprevalence among goats indicated that goats would be the most important animals in the epidemiology of BTV with less clinical manifestation due to development of acquired.

Sheep Disease: Blue Tongu

Figure 2 - Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, viral, and non-contagious disease in several species of domestic and wild ruminants. Sheep is the most susceptible host for bluetongue virus (BTV) in ruminants. In current study, 556 serum samples of ewes were assessed by competitive ELISA to investigate the serum status of BTV antibodies and risk factors affecting its seroprevalence in sheep flocks of. Scabies in Sheep and Goats 403 No satisfactory medicinal treatment for the destruction of thread lung- worms is known. Inhalants and intra- tracheal injections of various drugs have been tried, but frequently they are more injurious than beneficial to the host and they are hard to give. The hair lungworm can be killed b Bluetongue is a noncontagious disease caused by an orbivirus of the family Reoviridae.The bluetongue virus (BTV) serogroup consists of 24 serotypes. BTV is transmitted by arthropods of the genus Culicoides and its distribution worldwide is restricted to regions that contain competent vectors ().An outbreak of bluetongue was reported and confirmed in the Netherlands on August 17, 2006 () Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, but cattle are the principal vertebrate reservoirs of the virus. Once established, it is impossible to eradicate bluetongue virus. The virus will circulate, generally subclinically, in cattle and other ruminants, and in midges

Bluetongue Disease in Sheep and Goats | Sheep Farm(PDF) Assessing the Economic Impact of Different

Prevention of viraemia vital for bluetongue control

In 2006 and 2007, sheep and cattle farms in the Netherlands were affected by an epidemic of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). In order to obtain insight into the within-farm spread of the virus, five affected cattle and five affected sheep farms were longitudinally monitored between early 2007 and mid or late 2008. The farms were visited between four and seven times to collect blood samples What is bluetongue and what causes it? • Bluetongue is a non-contagious, viral disease spread by biting insects. • It affects species of ruminants, particularly sheep. • Bluetongue causes many different symptoms in affected animals, including ulcers, sores, painful hooves, lameness and reproductive problems. • Affected animals can have a slight to severe blue discolouration of th A Total of 25 sheep, negative for bluetongue antibody, of either sex aged more than 4 months were selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty were vaccinated subcutaneously each with 2 ml of the vaccine. Control group sheep (group 2): Five sheep were given 2 ml of sterile normal saline subcutaneously and acted as controls

Bluetongue virus serotype 27: detection and characterization of two novel variants in Corsica, France. J. Gen. Virol. 97(9):2073-2083. [ Links ] Williamson S., Woodger N. & Darpel K. 2008. Differential diagnosis of bluetongue in cattle and sheep. In Practice 30:242-251. [ Links To the Editor: In August 2006, several northern European countries including Belgium reported cases of bluetongue (BT) ().This noncontagious, arthropod-borne animal disease is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV), genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae.The genome of BTV consists of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA; 24 serotypes have been reported ().. Treatment . Young sheep . Young animals are less resistant and more likely to benefit from treatment with antibiotics. See your veterinarian for advice on what to use. Older sheep . Most affected older sheep recover spontaneously. Others only recover following shearing, when their fleeces dry out. In most flocks it is not worthwhil Figure 1: Standard epidemic of Sheep bluetongue in Tamilnadu. Figure 2: Changing epidemic of Sheep blue tongue in Tamilnadu. From the year analysis, a seasonal distribution and change in the disease cases from 2014 to 2016 were noticed, which correlates with the climatic factors of our investigation results from the result

Bluetongue virus (BTV) (link is external) is a viral disease similar to other arboviruses in that it is transmitted into the skin by a bite from female midges. BTV affects ruminant livestock with symptoms more severe in sheep (fever, difficulty breathing and swallowing and swollen feet and faces). Like the name suggests, on rare occasions BTV. Sheep with swollen, bright blue tongues: it is a surreal sight only recently spotted in Germany. Aptly dubbed Bluetongue, the deadly disease causing the coloration was previously well known in. Bluetongue (BT) disease is a serious and recurring threat to sheep producers in Wyoming and surrounding states. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides sonorensis) in late summer and early autumn, just before lambs are typically sent to market. Symptoms of BT include inflammation and congestion, a bluish discoloration of the skin, hemorrhages and ulcerations (most.

Overview of Bluetongue - Generalized Conditions

Bluetongue (BT) is an emerging, infectious but non-contagious, viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and also goat, cattle, buffalo, antelope, deer, and camels), which is caused by bluetongue virus belonging to Orbivirus genus of Reoviridae family and is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species (Mozaffari and Khalili 2012; Shlash et al. 2012; Purse et al. Bluetongue can be a severe disease in sheep with mortality varying from 5-80% depending on the virus serotype and on the immune status of the sheep populations. Although cattle can serve as reservoirs for BTV, clinical disease in cattle has generally been rare. When this has been encountered, clinical disease is usually evident in fewer than 5%. Occasionally, sheep will develop a swollen tongue with a bluish tinge caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood.. The term bluetongue is associated with severe rare cases where the mouth and nose swell so much that the tongue becomes almost blue in colour due to a reduced blood flow and severe swelling. In cattle the disease is less severe Bluetongue prevention measures stepped up. 21/08/06. The EU today agreed trade restrictions to control of the spread of Bluetongue following positive laboratory tests results for the disease. photo courtesy www.fao.org. All exports of cattle, sheep and deer from Belgium and the affected regions of the Netherlands and Germany will be prevented Bluetongue is currently absent in the UK but there is a significant risk of it being reintroduced with midges blown over the English Channel. In this course we introduce Bluetongue and cover clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control

Bluetongue: how to spot and report the disease - GOV

BTV Outbreaks: The first outbreak of bluetongue (BT) ever recorded in Northern Europe (caused by BTV8) was initially detected in the Netherlands during August 2006, before spreading across almost the whole of Europe during subsequent years. This outbreak killed many hundred thousand animals (mainly sheep) with an estimated 25% case fatality. Bluetongue Virus Outbreak in NW US Affecting both Sheep and Deer by J. F. Evermann, S. M. Parish, D. S. Bradway, K. G. Mansfield, G. M. Barrington, and A. R. Bredenberg Overview-- Bluetongue virus (BTV) has been recognized in the Northwestern United States for over 60 years (Parish, 1982). The clinical effects of BT disease are most pronounced i Africa, bluetongue viruses have spread to the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Australia (25). Bluetongue disease in the United States was first described . as soremuzzle in Texas (33), and bluetongue virus was isolated from sheep with soremuzzle in California in . 1952 (64). C. variipennis . was subsequently identified . a Treatment Treatment must be prompt to be effective. It is best to inject a combined calcium and magnesium solution (350ml for cattle, 100ml for sheep) under the skin in the area behind the shoulder and over the ribs. Massage the area well after injecting the solution to spread the fluid and aid its rapid absorption into the blood stream

Practical advice for preventing Bluetongue (blue tongue

Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific : proceedings of the first Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995 / editors, T.D. St. George and Peng Kagao Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Canberra 199 Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted, non-contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The worst affected domestic species is sheep. Goats and cattle usually have mild, self-limiting cases. White-tail deer and pronghorn are among the wild species that can be affected by bluetongue virus. Bluetongue virus is an Orbiviris

New Forest Eye Disease In Cattle - Astigmatism GlaucomaSheep

Bluetongue Vaccine for Animal Use - Drugs

Introduction. Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious disease affecting ruminant and camelid species (Hofmann et al., 2008).BT, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV), is a vectorborne disease transmitted between ruminant hosts by blood-feeding midges of the Culicoides spp.Hosts of BTV infection are domestic and wild ruminants, including sheep, goats, cattle and deer Bluetongue virus is an orbivirus and is a widespread pathogen of cattle in the United States and Africa and more recently has emerged as a problem in the Europe. It is thought to be responsible for significant economic losses approximating 125 million dollars a year. These recent outbreaks have proven to be very costly to the European cattle and sheep industry • Prevention involves good management practices and vaccination. Prevent conditions that can lead to the disease. A vaccine is available and could be used where the disease is important. Bluetongue • Bluetongue, also called bloutong, is more important in sheep. • It is caused by a virus. • It can occur when animals are not vaccinated. This research correlates the effect of climatic factors on bluetongue epidemiology in sheep of delta districts in Tamilnadu based on merteriological data collected from 2014 to 2016. There are a total of eighty two villages of delta districts were affected with Blue tongue virus (BTV). We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the.

Vaccines for Prevention of Bluetongue and Epizootic

Vaccinated sheep were seroconverted to bluetongue virus starting from 10 days of primary vaccination (DPV) with Mean±SD PI value of 36.05±10.78 and log 10 Mean±SD neutralizing antibody slightly increased from 0.85-1.42 starting from 3-21 days of post primary vaccination while, unvaccinated group of sheep had Mean±SD PI value of 111.79±12. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors for many arboviruses. At least 20 species are considered as vectors or potential vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) which cause bluetongue disease in ruminants. A BTV prevalence of 30-50% among cattle and goats in tropical southern Yunnan Province, China, prompted an investigation of the potential BTV vectors in this area Introduction. The global distribution of arboviruses has received considerable attention from public health organizations after recent emergence events in several parts of the world [1,2].Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arboviral disease in ruminants [], caused by a member of the genus Orivirus in the family Reoviridae.The disease is transmitted among ruminants by the bites of biting midges of.