Dominican Republic poverty rate

Poverty in the Dominican Republic More than a third of the Dominican Republic lives on less than $1.25 a day and over 20 percent of the country lives in extreme poverty. Most of the poverty in the Dominican Republic is concentrated in the rural areas. The rural poverty rate is about three times as high as the urban poverty rate Published by Marina Pasquali, Sep 9, 2020 In 2018, approximately 2.6 percent of the population in the Dominican Republic were living on less than 3.20 U.S. dollars per day, a share over four times..

Dominican Republic - Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line 21.0 (%) in 2019 In 2019, poverty rate at national poverty line for Dominican Republic was 21 %. Between 2017 and 2019, poverty rate at national poverty line of Dominican Republic was declining at a moderating rate to shrink from 25.6 % in 2017 to 21 % in 2019 As of 2019 the country was on track to realize its ambition of achieving high-income status by 2030. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the DR's economy and the national poverty rate is projected to rise by at least 1.4 percentage points to 14.2% in 2020, and the middle class is projected to shrink by 2 percentage points to 40% In 2008, the national poverty rate was roughly 34% in the Dominican Republic. The national poverty rate fell to 21% in 2019. However, much more progress must occur in order for the people of the Dominican Republic to escape poverty. Here are five main influences on poverty in the Dominican Republic

Remittances: Dominican Republic's weapon against poverty Santo Domingo.- -The Dominican Republic is the country in the Central American region with the highest growth in the arrival of remittances in the first quarter of 2021, income that has an impact on reducing poverty and the GINI coefficient (method used to measure wage inequality) Poverty in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic is a country with more than 10 million people. Currently, 40.4% of the Dominican Republic's people live in poverty, and 10.4% are in extreme poverty. Most poor people who suffer in impoverished conditions are located in urban neighborhoods and often must fend for themselves

Sustainable Development and Poverty in Hispaniola

Poverty in the Dominican Republic The Borgen Projec

  1. ican Republic from 20.3% in 2019 to 21.8% of the population in 2020
  2. ican Republic 2020 Crime & Safety Report. This is an annual report produced in conjunction with the Regional Security Office at the U.S. Embassy in Santo Do
  3. ican Republic (DR) has experienced a remarkable period of robust economic growth. The economy continued its rapid expansion in the years leading up to the COVID-19 pandemic, and between 2015 and 2019 the DR's annual GDP growth rate averaged 6.1%. Tourism, remittances, foreign direct investment.
  4. ican Republic poverty rate is even higher in rural areas because local farmers don't have access to agricultural technology and resources to make far
  5. ican Republic lives on less than $1.25 a day and over 20 percent of the country lives in extreme poverty. Most of the poverty in the Do
  6. ican Republic. The Human Capital Index (HCI) database provides data at the country level for each of the components of the Human Capital Index as well as for the overall index, disaggregated by gender. The index measures the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18, given the risks of poor health and.
  7. ican Republic. &. United States. Budget > Revenues : Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Budget surplus > + or deficit > - : This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of.

Poverty rates in the Dominican Republic Statist

In 2018, poverty rate for Dominican Republic was 0.4 %. Poverty rate of Dominican Republic fell gradually from 5.2 % in 1997 to 0.4 % in 2018. The description is composed by our digital data assistant. What is poverty rate The World Bank notes that while the Dominican Republic has made significant gains in reducing poverty, the country remains vulnerable to natural disasters, such as hurricanes Maria and Irma that. Dominican Republic LAC OECD Average annual change in total factor productivity, 2000-17 (%) [6] 0.2 -0.7 0.1 Social vulnerabilities Dominican Republic LAC OECD 2007 2016 2007 2016 2007 2016 Share of people living in poverty, less than USD 5.50 a day (2011 PPP) (%) [7] 34.1 21.0 34.9 24.0 NA N 48.4 in Dominican peso (2018) or US$1.90 (2011 PPP) per day per capita Lower Middle Income Class Poverty Line 81.4 in Dominican peso (2018) or US$3.20 (2011 PPP) per day per capita Upper Middle Income Class Poverty Lin

Dominican Republic Poverty rate at national poverty line

  1. ican Republic - Official Moderate Poverty Rate-National Official Moderate Poverty Rate-National in Do
  2. From 1989 to 1996, per capita income declined 23 percent, to $6,094 a year, in inflation-adjusted dollars, while the poverty rate rose to 46 percent from 37 percent -- almost double that for the..
  3. ican Republic Population below poverty line Factbook> Countries> Do
  4. South Africa has the largest wealth inequality gap worldwide, where the top 1% of earners take home almost 20% of income, and 90% of South African earners take home only 35% of all income. Costa Rica follows at 20.9%, then Romania at 17.9% and the United States at 17.8%. The United States has the fourth-highest poverty rate of 17.8%
  5. ican Republic / External account balance, selected items, 2019Q1=100 FIGURE 2 Do

Published by Aaron O'Neill , Apr 1, 2021. This statistic shows the poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines in the Dominican Republic from 2006 to 2016. In 2016, the poverty headcount. Dominican Republic. Country Indicators. Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) .7% 2017 .4% 2018. Multidimensional poverty, Headcount ratio (% of population) 6% 2018. International Poverty Line has a value of US$1.90 PP Differences in Poverty in the Dominican Republic and Haiti: Factors that Affect Growth. Kevin Werner . Abstract This article examines poverty in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which is of particular interest because these two countries share the same island. It will look at income poverty, and how poverty is related to economic growth Like many other countries in the region, the Dominican Republic remains marked by persistent socio-economic inequality: there is a big divide between the rich and the poor. Among 177 countries, the Dominican Republic is ranked 88th by the Human Development Index (HDI). Poverty remains a widespread phenomenon in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic is the region's largest economy, with an estimated 2018 gross domestic product (GDP) of $81.653 billion. While the country has made significant economic gains and is now a middle income country, more than 30 percent of Dominicans still live in poverty

Dominican Republic - International Development, Poverty

N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016. More than a third of the Dominican Republic lives on less than $1.25 a day and over 20 percent of the country lives in extreme poverty. Poverty in the Dominican Republic. The Borgen Project satisfactory. On the one hand, the Dominican Republic has made impressive progress in economic growth and stabilization, and poverty levels have been reduced. Bank project lending has also supported areas relevant to the MDGs---improving enrolments in basic education, reducing mortality rates, and addressing HIV/AIDs. But, on the other hand

Country-Specific Information: The Dominican Republic has 326,196 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 3,840 confirmed deaths. Medical care is limited, there is limited availability of ICU beds, and hospitalized patients may have an increased risk of exposure to COVID-19. U.S. citizens, including those considering traveling for elective surgery, are. 3. Poverty, Policy and Institutional Shortcomings 47 A. The Legacy of Distortions in the Dominican Republic's Economy 47 A. 1. Distortions in the Labor Market 47 A.2. The Public Sector 49 A.3. Trade Policy 50 B. Reforms Since the Early 1990s: Reducing Distortions in the Dominican Republic's Economy 51 C. Haitian Migration to the DR 53 C. 1 Hi there! In this Documentary, I focus on who, where and why there's still a large percentage of Dominicans living in poverty. You'll learn about what pensio.. SEATTLE — Over the past 25 years, the Dominican Republic has seen strong economic growth and a declining poverty rate. However, according to the World Bank, the economic growth rate was 4.6 percent in 2017, which was a decrease from the annual average of 7.1 between 2014 and 2016. In contrast, the poverty rate fell from 32 percent in 2015 to 30 percent in 2016 The Dominican Republic is a key transit country for cocaine from South America transiting the Caribbean destined for North America and Europe. The United States has a strong interest in a democratic, stable, and economically healthy Dominican Republic and supports its democratic and economic development. Despite a falling poverty rate.

Video: 5 Influences on Poverty in the Dominican Republic The

Dominican Today Povert

inequality, poverty and the origins of power in the dominican republic and haiti: a comparative study mémoire réalisé par marcos enrique romero tejad Dominican Republic's education, economic and social data is used here to project its future workforce growth potential. Information that include Additionally, the country's general poverty rate remains close to 40%. The Dominican Republic is a member of the Central American Integration System (SICA), the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM), and the Association of Caribbean States. The country is actively engaged in finding regional solutions to regional challenges HDX Scrapers updated the dataset Dominican Republic - Poverty 1 month ago. Data and Resources Metadata Poverty Indicators for Dominican Republic CSV (119.7K) Updated: January 28, 2021 Download More On HDX and HDX Tools.

Poverty in the Dominican Republic and Its Connection to

OCHA Services. Related Platforms Centre for Humanitarian Data; Other OCHA Services Financial Tracking Servic Compassion has been working in the Dominican Republic since 1970. These Dominican Republic facts and statistics provide a good picture of the reality of poverty and how child sponsorship through Compassion is making a difference. Poverty is a problem in the country of the Dominican Republic but with your support, Compassion is working to change. The value for Poverty headcount ratio at $5.50 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) in Dominican Republic was 19.90 as of 2016. As the graph below shows, over the past 30 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 54.70 in 1989 and a minimum value of 19.90 in 2016 The Dominican Republic has one of the highest neonatal mortality rates in Latin America, even though most births take place in hospitals. In 2018, 20 of every 1,000 babie s didn't survive past the first 28 days of life — a rate five times higher than the U.S The continued decline in productivity paradoxically leads to more tree cutting, and the vicious cycle continues. The rural sector, which makes up 31 percent of the Dominican Republic's population, is affected by high poverty rates, and 56% of people in rural areas live below the poverty line (Source: CIA World Factbook, July 2012)

The Dominican Republic has had a pretty turbulent 20th century. There has been a dictatorship, civil war, US occupation, authoritarian leaders. Today, however, Dominican Republic is comparatively stable. Unfortunately, poverty is a still an issue here. 20% of the population struggles to get by on $2 a day Poverty in the Dominican Republic. Children growing up in poverty in the Dominican Republic face grim realities such as poor living conditions, woefully inadequate education and health care, and a high teen-pregnancy rate. That's why we focus on providing medical and dental care, educational assistance, lifeskills and leadership programs and. growth rate of 4.5 percent in 2011 to 3.9 percent in 2012 and a projected 3 percent growth rate in 20133.The Dominican Republic's projected growth rate (3.8 percent) for 2013 is higher than the Caribbean average of 3.5 percent, and the projected growth rate of Haiti (6 percent), Nicaragua, Chile Abstract Over the past several decades, robust economic growth and sustained poverty reduction have made the Dominican Republic (DR) a regional success story, yet the country's adolescent pregnancy rate remains far above the average for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and is closer to the levels observed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

The combination of widespread, structural poverty and a comparatively high HIV rate particularly affect the country's most vulnerable segment of population: Dominican children. More than one million children in the Dominican Republic live in poverty and roughly 578,000 children under the age of 15 are without parental care A 2017 report by UNICEF and the World Bank showed that banning child marriage and early unions in the Dominican Republic would decrease the country's poverty rate by 10%. The enactment of.

ECLAC: In the DR, poverty, unemployment and inequality

Despite the economic growth of the Dominican Republic over the last decade, poverty is still a large problem and very little is invested in education. Dominican Republic Population Growth The population has more than doubled in the past 50 years in the Dominican Republic, going from 4.5 million in 1970, to the 2019 population just under 11 million A 2017 report by UNICEF and the World Bank showed that banning child marriage and early unions in the Dominican Republic would decrease the country's poverty rate by 10%

173. Turkmenistan. 0.2. 2012 est. World. No information is available for non-listed countries. National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations

Dominican Republic 2020 Crime & Safety Repor

  1. FinDev Gateway partners with a number of organizations who, in addition to contributing content, co-host webinars, share their expertise on research topics, and host key microfinance and financial inclusion events
  2. ican Republic. In spite of the Do
  3. ican Republic: Central Bank keeps rates steady in May. May 31, 2021. At its end-May meeting, the Central Bank (BCRD) decided to keep the policy rate at 3.00%. Read more. Do
  4. ican Republic needs to change its culture so that women are seen as more than housewives for this week's ban on child marriage to work, girls' rights campaigners said on Thursday.. The Caribbean nation has one of Latin America's highest rates of child marriage and early unions — typically where a girl lives with an older man — according to the United.

Helen Safa, Female-Headed Households and Poverty in Latin America: A Comparison of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, in Women's Activism in Latin America and the Caribbean: Engendering Social Justice, Democratizing Citizenship, ed. Elizabeth Maier and Nathalie Lebon (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2010), 62-63, 68-69 Haiti v. Dominican Republic: Energy Makes the Difference Sometimes a picture tells a thousand words and what this satellite picture of the island that holds Haiti and the Dominican Republic tells us is that energy poverty is real. At night, the people of Haiti are literally in the dark, whereas those in the Dominican Republic [ This Legal Guide focuses on the Dominican Republic, where an estimated 1.1 million kilograms of food is lost each week11 and multidimensional poverty hinders food security throughout the population.12 FLPC and GFN, in collaboration with partners in the Dominican Republic,13 developed this resource to help food donors

Dominican Republic Overview - World Ban

Dominican Republic - Teen Pregnancy Rate Soaring - Clear Link to Poverty - Deters Development Goals. December 8, 2017 - Santo Domingo.-. Adolescent pregnancy in the Dominican Republic is a complex and high concern problem, which requires urgent attention, according to a report released Thursfay in Santo Domingo by the. Poverty among the locals in Dominican Republic is still a problem and showing your appreciation to the service staff by providing a tip goes a long way. Solicitation in Dominican Republic Just like other Caribbean countries, many locals in Dominican Republic live off the tourism, so it's quite typical to see vendors on the beach and outside of. Although there are substantial upper class and middle class segments in the Dominican Republic, the country also has a high poverty rate. Since the 1970s, the poor economy of the Dominican Republic has rampantly driven emigration. Overall, between 1966 and 2002 119,000 Dominicans were legally admitted to Puerto Rico, while many thousands.

This document sets forth recommendations focused on the Dominican Republic, where 1.1 million kilograms of food is lost each week 2 and an estimated quarter of the population, or more than 3.1 million people, were living below the poverty line prior to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.3 The discussion below provides Geography & Population: The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, which is located west of Puerto Rico. Its only border is with Haiti. The Dominican Republic has an area of 48,400 kilometers, and its population was estimated at 8.4 million in 1999 The Dominican Republic was ranked as the eleventh most vulnerable country to climate change in 2017 and as one of the ten most affected nations by climate events between 1997 and 2016, according to the Global Climate Index. Synergies between poverty reduction and climate change adaption are particularly relevant in this context where about 30 percent of the population liv Dominican Republic OPHI Country Briefing 2010 Comparing the MPI with Other Poverty Measures 0.048 0.111 MPI (H) U$1.25 a dayU$2 a day National Poverty Linehpi109valueAverage Intensity of Deprivation (A) 0.43 The Dominican Republic shares an often-unguarded border with Haiti that children and adults cross daily in search of work and stability. In recent years people in this island nation have created one of the world's fastest-growing economies. In 2019, the Dominican government nearly doubled the minimum wage, but the country also experienced a.

Poverty in the Dominican Republic | The Borgen Project

For the last three years, the Dominican Republic has boasted the highest rate of economic growth in Latin America, around 7-8% per year. Headlines proclaim a Dominican economic miracle. The impressive growth figures, however, mask persistent inequality and poverty. In 1998, more than a fifth of Dominicans lived below the official poverty line. Dominican Republic - Poverty and wealth Photo by: Paul837 Steady economic growth has brought considerable wealth to some Dominicans, but a considerable sector still lives in extreme hardship, without access to social services or proper educational opportunity Poor children. In the Dominican Republic, more than 40% of the population lives below the poverty line. Great disparities are evident everywhere, and the majority of the population fall into one of two extremes: families are either very rich or very poor. Innumerable children suffer the consequences of living in poverty—most notably with. The Dominican Republic is a Caribbean nation that shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti. Though known for its pristine beaches, all-inclusive resorts and golfing, it has a varied terrain comprised of rainforest, savannah and highlands, including Pico Duarte, the Caribbean's tallest mountain inflation for the last three years stands at around 4%, while the poverty rate has dropped from over 50% to under 40% during the last 5 years. The local currency is the Dominican peso (RD$). The exchange rate (as of June, 2015) stands at RD$44.40 per US$1.00. Interest rates have remained stable over the last year with an average of 15

Poverty in the Dominican Republic & How to Help Cross

  1. ican Republic was ruled as a dictatorship until 1961. Since then it has functioned as a democratic republic. Poverty continues to plague the nation, with a select few controlling much of the wealth and a true middle class ceasing to exist
  2. ican Republic is one of the most popular travel destinations in the Caribbean.. Over 6 million tourists visit the white sand beaches, tropical rainforests, and all-inclusive resorts every year. But in the past several months, at least seven Americans have been reported dead at all-inclusive resorts, with several others clai
  3. ican Republic, which reduced its poverty rate from 37.5% to 18.6%, are particularly striking (see Figure 1.3)1. Figure 1.1. Real per capita GDP growth Average annual change 2010-2018 Source: World Development Indicators. 1 The poverty rate may not exactly match other official estimates or calculations due to differences in.
  4. ican Republic publishes official poverty rates twice per year, based on March and September data, in this report we only report September poverty rates so as to avoid issues related to seasonality. 4 These results are based on tabulations of SEDLAC (CEDLAS and the World Bank, 2010). This database is a regional dat
  5. ican Republic is a country mired in deep poverty and home to more than 10 million people. For over 25 years, Kids Alive has grown to serve over 2,000 children in family-style residential homes, care centers, and schools. Without intervention, most of our children would be unable to break the cycle of poverty that traps them in hopelessness

Dominican Republic - Agape Flight

In the Dominican Republic, good news on extreme poverty. Despite continued heartbreak in the most difficult places in the world, over the past few decades there has been incredible progress in the fight against extreme poverty. On a recent trip to the Dominican Republic, World Vision U.S. President Rich Stearns and the CEO of Family Christian. Many expats love the idea of living in the Dominican Republic without Dominicans. An expat and a tourist will never be able to appropriately explain Dominican culture, history and lifestyle better than a Dominican. 3) Do not haggle over $3, while enjoying the expat lifestyle. 4) No, Gringo is not a derogatory term

First and foremost, the Dominican Republic suffers from a very high poverty rate. Over 25% of the Dominican population is said to be living below the poverty line. Educational standards are very low and the majority of people living in the campo (countryside) stop attending school at a young age. The adult literacy rate is a low 87.8 percent In Dominican Republic, 30.5% live below the poverty line as of 2016. In United States, however, that number is 15.1% as of 2010. pay a 58.4% higher top tax rate The Dominican Republic has enjoyed steady economic growth in the last 20 years, but 35% of the Dominicans are living in poverty and 9% in extreme poverty. These are almost the same proportions as in 2000. According to the national Social Watch report, the gross domestic product has grown but wealth is not distributed in an equitable way, and.

Dominican Republic. Above-ground biomass in forest per hectare. 122.84 (2015) Absolute annual change in primary energy consumption. 7.439709069420019 (2016) Absolute number of deaths from ambient particulate air pollution. 3300 (2015 Interest in Dominican Republic's property market is rising fast again, following a temporary slowdown due to pandemic-related travel bans. What I'm hearing now is an uptick in inquiries about the second home market, said Anders Bogebjerg, owner of local real estate firm Group Palmera.Interest really hasn't slowed down with COVID The Dominican Republic was for most of its history primarily an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but over the last three decades the economy has become more diversified as the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in construction, tourism, and free trade zones

Dominican Republic Dat

  1. ican Republic is an upper-middle-income country ranking 98 out of 189 in the 2019 Human Development Index. Over the past decades, the country has experienced sustained economic growth and stability, and has succeeded in meeting th
  2. ican Republic, there is a vast rift between the privileged and the poor. Most of the slums are located in the middle of cities where employment is low, crime rates are high, and crowded homes are constructed from a mixture of low-quality materials
  3. icans. About 23% of U.S.-born Do
  4. ican Republic is 2,380,130 DOP per year. The most typical earning is 404,675 DOP.All data are based on 101 salary surveys. Salaries are different between men and women. Men receive an average salary of 2,982,056 DOP.Women receive a salary of 1,448,971 DOP.. The most paid careers are Health Care & Medical with average income 5,404,967 DOP and Management & Business with.
  5. ican Republic is a beautiful tropical country and it is the Caribbean's largest tourist destination. But outside of the beautiful, five-star resorts, thousands of people suffer from a high unemployment rate and more than one third of the country's population lives below the poverty line

Dominican Republic vs United States Economy Stats Compare

Singaporean students were among the top performers, whereas students from the Dominican Republic scored at the very bottom of the list of more than 80 participating education systems. According to the World Bank, the approximate annual income per capita in Singapore is $65,200, whereas in the Dominican Republic it is just $8,200 Further, in 2016, some 24 percent of Dominican families were living in poverty, a much higher rate than the 9 percent for the U.S. born and 15 percent for immigrant families overall. Immigration Pathways and Naturalization. Dominicans are slightly more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than immigrants overall • The unemployment rate in the Dominican Republic's unemployment rate is 15.6% Population below poverty • The percent of people living below poverty in the Dominican Republic is 42.2%. • Arable land is an agricultural term, meaning land that can be used for growing crops. • The percent of arable land in the Dominican Republic is 22.49%

Dominican Republic Poverty rate, 1974-2020 - knoema

Dominican Republic - Dominican Republic - Demographic trends: The rate of population increase in the Dominican Republic is greater than in most other West Indian nations, and about three-tenths of the population is less than 15 years of age. Both birth and death rates in the republic have long been higher than the regional average, although they have been lower than in Haiti (see Health and. 14th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14) Statement by the Representative of the Dominican Republic Date: 4 May 2006 Session: Thematic Discussion: Accelerating industrial development for poverty eradication Delivered by: John R. Gagain Jr., Executive Director, Presidential Commission on the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development (COPDES. The Dominican Republic has a number of civil society organizations working for poverty reduction and youth development in the country. For example, in 2009, the United Nations Volunteers program (UNV) worked with Alianza ONG and the Sirve Quisqueya Network to support the creation of a law on volunteerism in the Dominican Republic The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant challenges for the Dominican Republic, including the loss of foreign exchange earnings due to the reduction of key activities such as tourism, the shutdown of a large part of economic activities with direct and indirect effects on employment and household income, and fiscal challenges, as the government is implementing crisis relief measures at the same. Chart 2 - Dominican Republic GDP real growth rate, 1980-2011 (%) Chart 3 - Balance of trade and remittances to the Dominican Republic, 2000-2010 (USD million) Chart 4 - Trends in employment to population ratio, male and female, selected countries, 1991

ONE | Fact of the day: To curb poverty, we need to curbMySignals helps to reduce maternal deaths in DominicanTeenage Pregnancy in the Dominican Republic | Pulitzer CenterDominican Republic’s 56% tops region’s C-section rateInterest Rate Sensitivity in Ghana | Innovations for

opment index and the poverty rate (PNUD, 2019; ONE, 2020). Since 2016, the poverty rate has declined by 8 per-centage points, reaching 21% in 2019. Additionally, the situation poses several challenges. The country projects a high balance of payments deficit for this year due to the fall in income from tourism, one of the main economi Well, let's recap a few truths about the Dominican Republic. First, the Dominican Republic suffers from a high poverty rate. Over 25% of the population is living below the poverty line. The educational standards are very low, as a matter of fact, not a lot of emphasis is put on education in general. Most people living in the countryside stop. Poverty is also an issue despite the economic growth of the Dominican Republic over the last ten years with GDP per capita rising almost 50 percent from 2000 to 2011. In the same time period, over 19 percent of the country's residents' economic status actually fell despite the improved economy, widening the gaps between the poor and the rich