Pneumothorax Radiology pdf

Pneumothorax size measurements on digital chest

[PDF] Sonographic Detection of Pneumothorax by Radiology

Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sonographic pneumothorax detection by radiology residents as a part of extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST). Methods. In a prospective study, a sonographic search for pneumothoraces was performed as part of a standard FAST examination by the on‐call resident Research Article Effective Pneumothorax Detection for Chest X-Ray Images Using Local Binary Pattern and Support Vector Machine Yuan-Hao Chan,1 Yong-Zhi Zeng,2 Hsien-Chu Wu ,2,3 Ming-Chi Wu,4 and Hung-Min Sun 1,5 1Institute of Information Systems and Applications, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taichung. Pneumothorax, sometimes abbreviated to PTX, (plural: pneumothoraces) refers to the presence of gas (often air) in the pleural space.When this collection of gas is constantly enlarging with resulting compression of mediastinal structures, it can be life-threatening and is known as a tension pneumothorax (if no tension is present it is a simple pneumothorax)

Pneumothorax Fauniel Self 10/14/2020 RAD 4001 Bosserman, Andrew, MD. McGovern Medical School Clinical History •Patient is a 36-year-old male who presented as a level 1 trauma with GSW primarily to L chest with small ballistic injuries to all extremities bilaterally •+ SOB •GCS 1 This is especially true inasmuch as diagnostic pneumothorax furnishes valuable information, is relatively safe and easy to perform, and does not aggravate the patient's condition. The technic depends on whether or not there is an associated pleural effusion. In the absence of pleural fluid, the air usually is introduced under local anesthesia. Hydropneumothorax. A hydropneumothorax (plural: hydropneumothoraces) (or less commonly pneumohydrothorax (plural: pneumohydrothoraces)) is the term given to the concurrent presence of a pneumothorax and pleural effusion (i.e. hydrothorax) (i.e. gas and fluid) in the pleural space Pneumothorax. 1. Pneumothorax DR RAMDHAN KUMAR KAMAT PG JLNMCH, BHAGALPUR 1. 2. 2 WHAT IS PNEUMOTHORAX •Pneumothorax is defined as presence of air in the pleural space. 3. Pneumothorax 3. 4. Pathophysiology • Blebs and bullae are also known as emphysema-like changes (ELCs) • The probable cause of pneumothorax is rupture of an apical bleb. The thoracic CT scan was significantly more sensitive than routine chest radiography in detecting pneumothoraces. 4 In another study of 90 trauma patients initial supine chest radiography failed to detect a pneumothorax in 35 patients 3; the diagnosis being made on thoracic CT scans within 24 hours of admission

Factors Associated With Pneumothorax and Pneumothorax Requiring Treatment after Percutaneous Lung Biopsy in 443 Consecutive Patients Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 15, No. 5 99m Tc-Depreotide Scintigraphy in the Evaluation of Indeterminate Pulmonary Lesions: Clinical Experienc Pulmonary bullae (singular: bulla) are focal regions of emphysema with no discernible wall which measure more than 1 or 2 cm in diameter 1-2 . Some use the term pulmonary bleb for a similar lesion less than 1 or 2 cm, whereas others use both the terms bleb and bulla interchangeably. They are often subpleural in location and are typically larger.

Trapped lung, also known as unexpandable / unexpanded lung , is a term used where there is non-expandable lung after fluid removal, often thoracentes i s . It is similar to but not entirely synonymous with the term lung entrapment, which is a similar condition caused by active pleural disease rather than pleural inflammation from remote disease Pneumomediastinum and spontaneous pneumothorax as an extrapulmonary complication of COVID-19 disease Jesse Mauricio López Vega1 & María Luz Parra Gordo1 & Aurea Diez Tascón1 & Silvia Ossaba Vélez1 Received: 12 May 2020 /Accepted: 8 June 2020 # American Society of Emergency Radiology 2020 Abstrac A pneumothorax (collapsed lung, dropped lung) is the entry of air into the pleural space (the space between the lungs and chest wall).. When air enters this area, the lung loses contact with the inside of the chest and drops down. As this happens, the lung is not able to expand as it usually does

eight fields of view, the size of pneumothorax if present, chest radiography results per trauma attend-ing, and CT results per radiology interpretation. The US physician was blinded to the chest radiography and CT results until data collection was complete. Recorded US results were compared against both th The hidden pneumothorax. Correspondence to: . Dr M Harkness . Department of Medicine, Friarage Hospital, Northallerton, North Yorkshire DL6 1JG, UK; mharknessdoctors.org.uk. A 61 year old female smoker with a background of chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD, FEV1 1.2/FVC 1.85: predicted 2.42/2.86), pulmonary tuberculosis, carcinoma. An automated, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) algorithm for the quantification of pneumothoraces from Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) images has been developed. Algorithm performance was evaluated through comparison to manual segmentation by expert radiologists. A combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional processing techniques was incorporated to reduce required processing.

Eligible patients include those with a giant bulla occupying one-fourth or more of one hemithorax on preoperative imaging. We describe in this report a valuable sign to distinguish pneumothorax from adjacent giant bullae: the double-wall sign. This sign occurs when one sees air outlining both sides of the bulla wall parallel to the chest wall. Diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the perioperative area can be difficult. Traditional gold-standard modalities may not be available or feasible to institute. Ultrasound guidance allows the anesthesia provider a method of quickly ruling out this potentially life-threatening complication. In this article we detail the use of sonography for fast and accurate diagnosis of pneumothorax Abstract. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, awareness of uncommon presentations of the disease increases. Such is the case with pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Recent evidence suggested that these can occur in the context of COVID-19 pneumonia, even in the absence of mechanical ventilation-related barotrauma. We present two patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by. pneumothorax Radiology Apical, paraseptal and parenchymal lung bullae, paraseptal emphysema, apical pleural thickness, and subpleural nodules Spinal and paraspinal tumours Centrilobular emphysema, subpleural thin- walled lung cysts, bilateral basal reticular opacities, basa Three American College of Veterinary Radiology-certified veterinary radiologists blinded to surgical findings reviewed dorsal and sternal images simultaneously. Severity of pneumothorax, degree of atelectasis, lesion location and size, and view in which lesions were most confidently identified were compared to surgical and histologic findings

Pneumothorax Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

  1. circular machine. However, the radiology staff will reassure you throughout the procedure. What are the different types of surgery for pneumothorax? There are four different types of surgery to help treat pneumothorax: Pleurodesis This operation will help stick the two membranes (called pleura) that surround your lung back together
  2. ished breath sounds, tachypnoea, apnoea, bradycardia, hypoxia, hypercarbia and / or change in cardio vascular status
  3. Radiology 1988; 167: 457-61. various workers.20-22 The present study shows that 14. Poe RH, Kallay MC, Wicks CM, Odoroff CL. the rate of pneumothorax is independent of the Predicting risk of pneumothorax in needle biopsy of size of the needle bore, three bores were used i.e; the lung. Chest 1984; 85: 232-5. 15
  4. Pneumothorax is a relatively common clinical problem which can occur in individuals of any age. Irrespective of aetiology (primary, or secondary to antecedent lung disorders or injury), immediate management depends on the extent of cardiorespiratory impairment, degree of symptoms and size of pneumothorax

Radiological review of pneumothorax The BM

The pneumothorax case was a difficult judgment when pneumothorax region is extremely stenotic and close to the chest boundaries. In addition, pixels located near the chest boundaries tend to have less discriminative texture on image indication, because the bones and pleura existed in obvious edges, which reduced their correspondence of textures ESSENTIALS OF RADIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE The Essentials of Radiology Examination is designed to test the radiology knowledge and clinical skills across both the subspecialties and imaging modalities of diagnostic radiology for the imaging diagnosis of conditions that may be encountered in the practices of all radiologists Positioning patients in lateral decubitus with the biopsied lung dependent, puncture site down with a biopsy window in the CT table, using smaller calibre needles and using coaxial technique if multiple samples are needed are associated with a reduced incidence of pneumothorax

Pneumothorax: from definition to diagnosis and treatmen

Methods Cases were collected retrospectively from UK hospitals with inclusion criteria limited to a diagnosis of COVID-19 and the presence of either pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Patients included in the study presented between March and June 2020. Details obtained from the medical record included demographics, radiology, laboratory investigations, clinical management and survival Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. Numerous studies have shown its typical and atypical CT findings. We report one COVID-19 patient who presented with a transient pneumothorax, spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP), as well as subcutaneous emphysema during hospitalization pneumothorax after thoracentesis with or without ultrasound guidance for all causes of pleural effusion. A meta-analysis of 24 studiesand6,605thoracentesespublishedin 2010 found that the overall pneumothorax risk after thoracentesis was 6.0%, and that ultrasound guidance was associated with a lower risk of pneumothorax (4.0% vs. 9.3% 41 Chest Radiology CH 2 Dyspnoea REMARKS 1 Dyspnoea can be broadly classified into cardiac or pulmonary origins. 2 Chest X-ray (CXR) usually forms part of the initial workup for patients presenting with dyspnoea. 3 In two-thirds of the cases, CXR can help to make a diagnosis. 4 For patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation Automated triage of patients in radiology is a rapidly developing machine learning application with the goal of early detection of urgent pathologies [1, 2].One such pathology is a pneumothorax, the relevance of which is reflected by its frequency and the possibility of severe complications

Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at risk for a variety of acute pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Our aim was to describe the radiographic and CT findings and to determine the frequency of complicating spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with IPF. A retrospective study was performed including 78 consecutive. - Simple/Tension Pneumothorax - Open Pneumothorax - Hemothorax - Flail Chest - Cardiac Tamponade • Stage of Resuscitation - Pulmonary contusion - Ruptured Diaphragm - Ruptured bronchu Risk Factors Lung Biopsy Pneumothorax Percutaneous Needle Lung Biopsy 1. Background Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous needle lung biopsy (PCNB) is a well-established and safe method utilized in the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions requiring pathological confirmation (1, 2).Although CT-guided PCNB is generally safe, however, pneumothorax is a relatively well-known complication of this. Effectiveness of Ambulatory Tru-Close Thoracic Vent for the Outpatient Management of Pneumothorax: A Prospective Pilot Study Yong Pyo Kim, MD, 1 Seok Jin Haam, MD, PhD, 2 Sungsoo Lee, MD, PhD, 3 Geun Dong Lee, MD, 3 Seung-Moon Joo, MD, 1 Tae Jun Yum, MD, 1 and Kwang-Hun Lee, MD, PhD 1 1 Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei.

Usefulness of the Double-Wall Sign in Detecting

Tension pneumothorax Radiology Reference Article

Pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space and classified as spontaneous (primary or secondary) or traumatic. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax usually occurs in the absence of underlying lung disease. Patients are classically described as tall men, aged 20 to 40 years, who are smokers Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema are rare entities. A rising trend in the setting of COVID-19 even in patients who are not put on invasive ventilation can suggest an alternative aetiology. We describe four cases which presented with suspected symptoms of COVID-19 and were diagnosed with pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous. Background Pneumothorax can lead to a life-threatening emergency. The experienced radiologists can offer precise diagnosis according to the chest radiographs. The localization of the pneumothorax lesions will help to quickly diagnose, which will be benefit for the patients in the underdevelopment areas lack of the experienced radiologists. In recent years, with the development of large neural.

Pneumothorax PPT - SlideShar

Of the 60 patients with pneumothorax, 58 were laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection with two diagnosed based on clinical history and radiology. Sixty-one pneumothoraces were confirmed by chest radiograph, whilst one case was diagnosed by suspicious radiology prior to deterioration Early detection of pneumothorax in multiple trauma patients is critically important. It can be argued that the efficacy of ultrasonography (US) for detection of pneumothorax is enhanced if it is performed and interpreted directly by the clinician in charge of the patients. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of emergency department clinicians to perform bedside US to detect and. Read this chapter of Emergency Radiology: Case Studies online now, exclusively on AccessEmergency Medicine. AccessEmergency Medicine is a subscription-based resource from McGraw Hill that features trusted medical content from the best minds in medicine

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Background In CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy (CTLB), pneumothorax can occur as a late complication (delayed pneumothorax). The incidence, risk factors, and clinical significance of delayed pneumothorax are not well known. Objectives To compare the risk factors for immediate and delayed pneumothorax after CTLB and to know their clinical significance. Methods Images and medical records of. The British Journal of Radiology, 73 (2000), 356±359 E 2000 The British Institute of Radiology Do bullae indicate a predisposition to recurrent pneumothorax? 1 H J M SMIT, MD, PhD, 2M A Th P WIENK, MD, 3A J M SCHREURS, MD, PhD, 1 F M N H SCHRAMEL, MD, PhD and 1P E POSTMUS, MD, PhD Departments of 1Pulmonary Medicine and 2Radiology, University Hospital, Vrije Universiteit and 3Department of. A 25-year-old man with a history of Marfan syndrome, asthma and smoking presented with worsening dyspnoea and right-sided chest pain worsened with deep breathing after a fall 2 days prior. Diagnostic imaging revealed a spontaneous right-sided pneumothorax due to ruptured subpleural bullae in the apex of the right lung. Smaller subpleural bullae were also noted in the apex of the left lung

Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Study of 105 Cases Radiolog

  1. Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is defined as recurrent pneumothorax (at least two episodes) occurring between the day before and within 72 hours after the onset of menstruation. It may affect up to one-third of women with spontaneous pneumothoraces [1]. It is encountered in 3-6% of spontaneous pneumothorax cases among menstruating women [2]
  2. utes), low expense (approximately $50 to $100), and low radiation exposure (0.01 mSv, equivalent to 1 day.
  3. Background: Whether conservative management is an acceptable alternative to interventional management for uncomplicated, moderate-to-large primary spontaneous pneumothorax is unknown. Methods: In this open-label, multicenter, noninferiority trial, we recruited patients 14 to 50 years of age with a first-known, unilateral, moderate-to-large primary spontaneous pneumothorax
  4. A note on pneumothorax post-CT-guided biopsy Published by the British Institute of Radiology Mohammad Moad 1, Parag Narkhede 1, Karl Jackson 1 and Avinash Aujayeb 1 1 Northumbria Health Care NHS Foundation Trust, PDF/EPUB A note on pneumothorax post-CT-guided biopsy. The.
  5. Pneumothorax is a relatively common clinical problem which can occur in individuals of any age. Irrespective of aetiology (primary, or secondary to antecedent lung disorders or injury), immediate management depends on the extent of cardiorespiratory impairment, degree of symptoms and size of pneumothorax. Guidelines have been produced which outline appropriate strategies in the care of.

Registered users can save articles, searches, and manage email alerts. All registration fields are required Pneumothorax refers to the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity between the visceral and parietal pleura, which results in violation of the pleural space, and although pediatric pneumothorax is uncommon, it can be life threatening. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in children without known lung disease, whereas secondary spont.. Abstract Background Whether conservative management is an acceptable alternative to interventional management for uncomplicated, moderate-to-large primary spontaneous pneumothorax is unknown Mediastinal Emphysema, Giant Bulla, and Pneumothorax Developed during the Course of COVID-19 Pneumonia Ruihong Sun, MD, 1, * Hongyuan Liu, MD, 2, * and Xiang Wang, MD 1: 1 Department of Radiology, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.: 2 Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of. Pneumothorax develops when air enters the. pleural space. as the result of disease or injury. This leads to a loss of negative pressure between the two. pleural membranes. , which can result in the partial or complete collapse of the lung. Pneumothorax is classified as spontaneous or traumatic. Spontaneous pneumothorax

In a study of 4,262 consecutive lung biopsies, the overall rate of pneumothorax and chest tube placement was 30.2% and 15%, respectively . The rate of pneumothorax and chest tube placement was lower with the use of a 19 gauge guide needle (24.5% and 13.1%, respectively) when compared to 18 gauge guide needle (35% and 16.7%, respectively) The bedside chest x-ray (CXR) is an indispensible diagnostic tool for monitoring seriously ill patients in the intensive care unit. The CXR often reveals abnormalities that may not be detected clinically. In addition, bedside CXRs are an irreplaceable tool with which to detect the malposition of tubes and lines and to identify associated complications. Although the image quality is often. A chest radiograph showed a large right pneumothorax along with a smaller left pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema. Bilateral chest tubes were placed. A subsequent radiograph showed bilateral lung re-expansion but with a right-sided ovoid lucency measuring 11.3 x 5 cm suggestive of a pneumatocele (Figure 1C). Extensive. Pneumothorax often complicates the management of mechanically ventilated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients in the isolation intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to determine whether pneumothoraces are induced by high ventilatory pressure or volume and if they are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated SARS patients Benign pleural thickening caused by fibrosis is the second most common pleural abnormality, the most common one being effusion. Pleural fibrosis has a number of causes and is the outcome of many pleural diseases and a potential complication of every inflammatory condition that affects the lungs. The pleura show a variety of patterns of fibrosis

Diagnostic Pneumothorax Radiolog

Hydropneumothorax Radiology Reference Article

  1. AI detected a subtle Pneumothorax (PTX) missed in the radiology report. Small left apical PTX with plural line near rib edge. RADIOLOGIST REPORT No PTX and/or shift of midline structure is evident. AI Result Suspicious for PTX. CASE STUDY JB72306XX 7
  2. ii. To obtain appropriate laboratory and radiology studies. iii. To recognize and treat decompensationdue to tension pneumothorax. iv. To avoid premature closure and continue to evaluate all possible etiologies for patient condition. b. Secondary i. Know the clinical findings and appropriate management of tension pneumothorax
  3. Figure 1. Radiographic findings of pneumothorax and artifacts related to skinfolds. (A) Upright posterior-anterior chest radiograph of a 27-year-old male with spontaneous pneumothorax.The subtle extrapulmonary increased lucency of the pneumothorax (PTX) is outlined by the visceral pleura, a sharp thin radiopaque linear shadow (white arrows).The lung is partially collapsed with no lung.
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Pneumothorax Rate Qualifying discharges with any secondary ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes for iatrogenic pneumothorax. Surgical or medical discharges for Medicare FFS beneficiaries ages 18 years and older. PSI 08: In-Hospital Fall with Hip Fracture Rate Qualifying discharges with any secondary ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes for hip fracture Chest x-ray Atlas. This atlas is organized into three headings: Pathology. Diseases. Radiologic signs. The atlas may be utilized by any student wishing to gain more knowledge regarding chest x-rays. It is anticipated that you will continue to read textbooks, and use this module for review purposes

Pneumothorax - SlideShar

Interventional Radiology Benjamin G. Northcutt, MD . Anjuli A. Shah, MD . Yun R. Sheu, MD . Lemore Carmi, MD . From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 601 N Caroline St, Room 4210, Baltimore, MD 21287. Presented as an education exhibit at the 2013 RSNA Annual Meeting Tension pneumothorax is an unusual but a recognized cause of respiratory and cardiovascular compromise during anaesthesia and surgery. Air leaks can be defined as any extrusion of air from normal gas-filled cavities including the upper airway, sinuses, tracheobronchial tree, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Clinical conditions of relevance in. in diagnostic radiology, and some have additional certifications in specialties such as neuro-radiology and interventional radiology. And we use state-of-the-art imaging technology at all of our locations, Pneumothorax Atelectasis Cough Emphysema Fever of unknown origin Injury/trauma Infiltrate Yes No CT Chest/Thorax w/contrast 71260 Lung.

Learning Radiology - Bullous Disease of the Lungs

Pneumothorax or hemothorax may also be identified by placing the probe along the chest wall and looking for the presence of lung sliding. Loss of sliding implies the possible presence of a pneumothorax. 10. Radiology: Imaging Trauma Patients in Deployed Setting, 13 Mar 2017. Abnormal. An apical pneumothorax is present on the right side. Diagnosis: Spontaneous Pneumothorax. Note: the difference between the apices of the right and left lungs. Specifically (1) the visceral pleural line is just visible at the right apex, and (2) the absence of any lung markings lateral to this visceral pleural line A primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in young people without known respiratory illnesses. A secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in patients with pre-existing pulmonary diseases.A tension pneumothorax is a medical emergency that requires immediate decompression.Patients with a pneumothorax Pneumothorax is the medical term for a collapsed lung. This occurs when air is trapped in the space around the lungs. A collapsed lung can result in your chest feeling tight and achy and make it. SP, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema are extremely rare in COVID-19. The probable cause of SP in COVID-19 in the reported case was alveolar damage. SP and pneumothorax may be related to death when SP and pneumothorax are found, and the patient should be carefully monitored to prevent respiratory deterioration

When interpreting a chest X-ray you should divide each of the lungs into three zones, each occupying one-third of the height of the lung. These zones do not equate to lung lobes (e.g. the left lung has three zones but only two lobes). Inspect the lung zones ensuring that lung markings are present throughout clamp the distal end; if there is a pneumothorax, bubbling may be seen. If there is a large pleural effusion, it will begin collecting. Do not reclamp the chest tube, once released, unless the pleural drainage system is being changed. Reclamping the tube may lead to the redevelopment of a pneumothorax and may create a tension pneumothorax Pneumothorax is a recognized cause of preventable death following chest wall trauma where a simple intervention can be life saving. In cases of trauma patients where cervical spine immobilization is mandatory, supine AP chest radiograph is the most practical initial study. It is however not as sensitive as CT chest for early detection of a pneumothorax Tension pneumothorax as the cause of death may be missed, unless post mortem examination includes chest radiology or monitors pleural pressure before opening the thoracic cavity (84,85). This raises the question as to whether any asthma deaths may be due to tension pneumothorax and if they could have been prevented

Figure 2 from High-Resolution CT Findings of Re-Expansion

Pneumothorax is defined as the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity (ie, the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the lung). The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side. Pneumothorax can impair oxygenation and/or ventilation Determining the size of pneumothorax in the upright patient.Radiology 1982:144:733-736). Both studies compare the size of the lung in relation to the size of the thorax with labels B and C referring to the interpleural distance at the mid points of the upper and lower hemithoraces respectively, not the midpoints of the collapsed lungs, as used.

(PDF) Life threatening nontraumatic tension gastrothorax

Tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening condition that can occur with chest trauma when air is trapped in the pleural cavity leading to a cascading impact including a rapid deterioration of a patient's ability to maintain oxygenation. Tension pneumothorax is more likely to occur with trauma involving an opening in the chest wall Clinical features of a pneumothorax. A pneumothorax is a collection of air between the parietal and visceral pleura of the lung.There are several different ways to classify and name pneumothoraces. Pneumothoracies can be classified as either primary or secondary:. A primary pneumothorax develops in the absence of an underlying disease process.; A secondary pneumothorax develops as a result of. Lung transplant patients commonly undergo transbronchial biopsy to evaluate for rejection. Post-biopsy radiographs are used to exclude pneumothorax, one of the most common major complications. We report a lung transplant patient who developed a pneumothorax 5 months after transbronchial biopsy, with multiple intervening chest computed tomograms documenting that the pneumothorax developed from.

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